Lean Bim Construction

El blog lean de la construcción

La construcción no es ineficiente

Hay estudios y artículos famosos de la ineficiencia del sector y suelen mostrar gráficas de este estilo.

captura-de-pantalla-2016-12-02-a-las-18-54-25

Otros ejemplos pueden ser el informe Egan, el siguiente estudio realizado en el 20o4 por  Teicholz, de entidades privadas como McKinsey y este último más reciente de un análisis de cinco proyectos en Brasil.

Exponen entre otras razones que la productividad en otras industrias ha aumentado a ratios del 400% en el último siglo; en cambio, el mismo ratio es negativo o plano en nuestro sector. Y que una de las  razones de ese avance es la industrialización y la confianza de las empresas en cinco factores: gestión de la mano de obra, del trabajo, principios lean, simulación y relaciones causa-efecto en la fuente.

Conclusión: ni han entendido el lean ni han entendido el sector ni el origen de esa improductividad que dicen. No han utilizado por ejemplo los “cinco porqués”. La llamada construcción industrializada no se ha impuesto por una sencilla razón: aún es más cara que el enfoque tradicional. Por eso siguen haciéndose obras in situ o con elementos prefabricados. Y seguirá siendo más cara hasta que no se estandaricen procesos y elementos.

Además si hablamos de gestión económica, pocos negocios están tan bien simulados económicamente como una obra si el jefe de obra es profesional y responsable.

Y sirva de ejemplo el post anterior para ver que la construcción si está evolucionando.

Ya saben que soy un defensor del sector de la construcción español. Si queremos les damos mil vueltas a ingleses y americanos. Y además hacemos grandes megaproyectos con sueldos bajos. Y trabajando largas jornadas de trabajo. ¿Qué más puede pedir el sector? Pero también hay las estadísticas y la constatación real que largas horas de trabajo no significa ser eficiente.

A los ingenieros superiores españoles no nos han regalado 8 años de esfuerzo, exámenes maratonianos y de una gran dificultad: Estructuras, Algebra, Geometría descriptiva, etc… sirven para algo.

Yo participé hace años en un pequeño proyecto que el suministro era Just in Time. Era por ventanas horarias y entregas nocturnas diarias. Y necesitábamos un almacén satélite cercano a la obra. Era elementos prefabricados. Y nadie sabía la definición de JIT. Y ejemplos como éste hay muchos.

Los profesionales del sector español que trabajan en países de cultura anglosajona saben que la cantidad económica destinada a indirectos es mayor que aquí. Es decir, se emplea más gente para hacer lo mismo. Esto en definitiva es un despilfarro. Muchas veces en estos congresos donde se invita a gurús extranjeros he tenido que morderme la lengua. Como si lo que se aplica allí funcionaría aquí. Grave error.

Aunque debería hacerse un estudio de eficiencia por países con ratios de producción/horas o similares y eso es casi imposible. No hay datos fidedignos.

La única diferencia a favor del sector extranjero es que están más acostumbrados a gestiones con constructora participando en diseño. En cambio aquí la gran mayoría de gestiones son DBB (Design-Bid-Build). Y esto si que es un gran despilfarro conceptual.

Y todo el movimiento vinculado al Lean Construction. ¿En Japón se aplica? NO. Evidentemente son conocedores del Toyota Production System, pero dicen que eso no se aplica a la construcción. Y tienen parte de razón. Sobretodo a nivel herramientas. No tanto a nivel principios y filosofía. Y dudo mucho que la construcción japonesa sea ineficiente.

¿Entonces tiene sentido que las propiedades pidan Lean Construction? Hay que especificar muy bien que entienden por ello y cuáles son sus requerimientos. Si sólo están interesadas en planificación colaborativa, sólo tienen que pedir Last Planner System. Y esto es incluir tres palabras en los pliegos de licitación.

Sucede lo mismo con el BIM. ¿Trabajar con modelos virtuales 3D es BIM? Vemos que dice la definición de BIM según el Comité nacional Americano Bim (Us National Building Information Model Standard Project Comitte):

“Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. A BIM is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition”

Detrás de este post hay un sentimiento personal de autoestima y respeto por la profesionalidad y capacitación de muchos profesionales del sector. Incluyendo también titulaciones medias como ingenieros técnicos cuya formación y dificultad es similar. Y por supuesto arquitectos (incluídos cuando me refería a ingenieros superiores). No hago discriminación en los titulados en España del sector. Estamos todos dentro incluídos.

Para conseguir verdadera autoestima debemos concentrarnos en nuestros éxitos y olvidar los fracasos y aspectos negativos de nuestra vida.  Denis Waitley

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    HOla,

    Un post de un blog de hace un par de años que guarda una cierta similitud sobre la construcción industrializada:

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    Casualidades o no.

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